Telecommunications in Poland
Telecommunications in Poland include radio, television, fixed and mobile telephones, and the Internet.
Radio and television
- Radio stations:
- Radios: 20.3 million (1997).[needs update]
- Television stations:
- state-run public TV operates 2 national channels supplemented by 16 regional channels and several niche channels; privately owned entities operate several national TV networks and a number of special interest channels; many privately owned channels broadcasting locally; roughly half of all households are linked to either satellite or cable TV systems providing access to foreign television networks (2007);
- 179 + 256 repeaters (1995).
- Television sets: 13.05 million (1997).[needs update]
- Calling code: +48
- International call prefix: 00
- Main lines:
- 6.1 million lines in use (2012);
- 10.3 million lines in use (2007).
- Mobile cellular:
- 50.8 million lines (2012);
- 45.0 million lines (2009).
- Telephone system: modernization of the telecommunications network has accelerated with market-based competition; fixed-line service, dominated by the former state-owned company, is dwarfed by the growth in mobile-cellular services; mobile-cellular service available since 1993 and provided by three nationwide networks with a fourth provider beginning operations in late 2006; coverage is generally good with some gaps in the east; fixed-line service lags in rural areas; international direct dialing with automated exchanges (2011).
- Satellite earth stations: 1 with access to Intelsat, Eutelsat, Inmarsat, and Intersputnik (2011).
The market for fixed line telephony services and infrastructure was monopolized by the state until 1990. The state monopoly was implemented by the PPTiT which was subordinated to the Ministry of Communications. The telephony segments of that entity were spun-off and incorporated into Telekomunikacja Polska which was later privatized and sold to Orange Polska. The Telecommunications Act of 1990 allowed the provision of telecommunication infrastructure and services by the former monopoly. After 2000, other operators were allowed to use TP's telecommunications infrastructure under Third-party Access.
From the communist era Poland inherited an underdeveloped and outmoded system of telephones, with some areas (e.g. in the extreme South East) being served by manual exchanges. In December 2005 the last analog exchange was shut down. All telephone lines are now served by modern fully computerized exchanges (Siemens EWSD, Alcatel S12, Lucent 5ESS, Alcatel E10). The former state owned telephone monopoly (TPSA) has been mostly privatized, with France Telecom buying the largest share. Various other companies have entered the fixed phone market, but generally aiming for niches (e.g. Sferia with fixed wireless, Netia covering primarily business). Whilst prices have reduced and availability has increased considerably since the introduction of competition, there is little sign of TPSA's market share being seriously reduced.
The long waiting list for fixed line telephones helped in a boom in mobile cellular telephone use and all mobile phone operators in Poland use GSM. There are three competing networks with similar market share, T-Mobile (T-Mobile and Heyah brands), Orange Polska (Orange and POP brands) and Plus (Plus and Sami Swoi brands). The fourth network, Play, owned by Netia and Novator Telecom, started offering UMTS network services in early 2007. All mobile operators have UMTS services in the major cities, with nationwide coverage planned.
- Top-level domain: .pl
- Internet users:
- Fixed broadband: 6.4 million subscriptions, 17th in the world; 16.6% of the population, 54th in the world (2012).
- Wireless broadband: 18.9 million subscriptions, 16th in the world; 49.3% of the population, 33rd in the world (2012).
- Internet hosts: 13.3 million hosts, 12th in the world (2012).
- IPv4: 19.4 million addresses allocated, 21st in the world, 0.5% of the world total, 505.9 addresses per 1000 people (2012).
- Internet Service Providers: 19 ISPs (1999).[needs update]
- Polskie Radio, Poland's national publicly funded radio broadcasting organization.
- Radio stations in interwar Poland
- List of Polish-language radio stations
- CERT Polska, Computer Emergency Response Team for Poland.
- Media in Poland
- This article incorporates public domain material from the CIA World Factbook website https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/index.html.
- "Communications: Poland", World Factbook, U.S. Central Intelligence Agency, 10 February 2014. Retrieved 22 February 2014.
- Dialing Procedures (International Prefix, National (Trunk) Prefix and National (Significant) Number) (in Accordance with ITY-T Recommendation E.164 (11/2010)), Annex to ITU Operational Bulletin No. 994-15.XII.2011, International Telecommunication Union (ITU, Geneva), 15 December 2011. Retrieved 2 January 2014.
- Calculated using penetration rate and population data from "Countries and Areas Ranked by Population: 2012" Archived 2017-03-29 at the Wayback Machine, Population data, International Programs, U.S. Census Bureau, retrieved 26 June 2013
- "Percentage of Individuals using the Internet 2000-2012", International Telecommunications Union (Geneva), June 2013, retrieved 22 June 2013
- "Fixed (wired)-broadband subscriptions per 100 inhabitants 2012", Dynamic Report, ITU ITC EYE, International Telecommunication Union. Retrieved on 29 June 2013.
- "Active mobile-broadband subscriptions per 100 inhabitants 2012", Dynamic Report, ITU ITC EYE, International Telecommunication Union. Retrieved on 29 June 2013.
- "Internet hosts", World Factbook, U.S. Central Intelligence Agency, 2012. Retrieved 17 June 2013.
- Select Formats Archived 2009-05-13 at the Wayback Machine, Country IP Blocks. Accessed on 2 April 2012. Note: Site is said to be updated daily.
- Population, The World Factbook, United States Central Intelligence Agency. Accessed on 2 April 2012. Note: Data are mostly for 1 July 2012.
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